Louis VII (Biographies Historiques) (French Edition)

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John Conroy. Kirstin Downey. Olivier Bernier. The French Revolution and Napoleon. The committee invited both the English and French speaking people of Red River to send delegates to Upper Fort Garry to discuss the terms on which they would allow McDougall — and by extension Canadian authority — into the Northwest. Smith , chief representative of the HBC in Canada.

Smith persuaded Riel to summon a general meeting, at which Riel and other local leaders proposed a convention of 40 representatives of the settlement, equally divided between English and French speakers, to discuss the possibility of union with Canada see Manitoba and Confederation. Meanwhile, a small force of Canadians gathered at Portage la Prairie , hoping to enlist support in the Scottish parishes of Red River and disband the provisional government.

Scott was executed on 4 March The agreement was embodied in the Manitoba Act , which received royal assent on 12 May , when the Province of Manitoba entered Confederation. Central to this agreement, the federal government agreed to reserve 1. To reassure Ontario and support the administration of the new Lieutenant-Governor A. Archibald , the federal government sent a military force to Red River under Colonel Garnet Wolseley in the summer of Though the Red River Expedition was supposed to be "an errand of peace," according to Archibald, the provisional government had not consented to its arrival, and it was not part of the agreement made by the delegation to Ottawa.

Riel had reason to fear its arrival; the provisional government even considered resisting it. However, when it became obvious that the expedition was out to lynch Riel, he fled to the United States. On 3 May , he returned quietly to his home in Saint-Vital, Red River, although he often stayed in hiding. In Quebec , he was regarded as a hero, a defender of the Roman Catholic faith and French culture in Manitoba. Anxious to avoid a political confrontation with the two principal provinces of Canada, Sir John A. Macdonald tried to persuade Riel to remain in voluntary exile in the United States, even providing a cash payout to Riel, who needed the money to support his family.

However, his exile lasted only four months, and Riel was encouraged by his friends and his widespread popularity in French Manitoba to enter federal politics. He was elected in the federal riding of Provencher in a by-election in October But before taking his seat, he was expelled from the House on a motion introduced by the Ontario Orange leader Mackenzie Bowell. Although re-elected in a constituency by-election in Provencher in September , Riel delayed in taking his seat and was later expelled from the House.

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On 12 February , the federal government adopted a motion granting amnesty to Riel that was conditional to five years of banishment from "Her Majesty's Dominions. Shortly after his exile, Riel suffered a nervous breakdown and his friends secretly admitted him to hospital , against his own wishes, at Longue Pointe in Montreal.

He was later transferred to the mental asylum at Beauport , Quebec. Riel consented, so long as his family could join them and that he would be able to return to Montana once things were settled in Saskatchewan. Riel conducted a peaceful agitation there, speaking throughout the district and preparing a petition. Non-Aboriginal farmers were also dissatisfied with their lot and took issue with low wheat prices, high freight costs and tariffs on farming machinery.

They were especially upset that their settlements were not reached by the new Canadian Pacific Railway. At a meeting on 8 March , Riel put forth a motion to create a provisional government for Saskatchewan. While the motion did not pass at that meeting, a point "Revolutionary Bill of Rights" was drafted. On 6 July , a formal charge of treason was laid against Riel. On 20 July, his trial began in Regina. Riel, however, could not afford his own defence, and so his counsel was paid for by friends in Quebec , who likely had different motives than Riel.

With the foreman in tears, the jury pronounced Riel guilty. While the jury recommended clemency, none was forthcoming. Both appeals were dismissed, but public pressure, particularly from Quebec, delayed execution pending an examination of Riel's mental state. The three examining physicians found Riel "excitable," but only one considered him insane. Owing to questionable excisions, the official version of the report did not reveal any difference of opinion and the federal Cabinet decided in favour of hanging.

Riel was executed on a public gallows in Regina on 16 November His grave, as well as his home, remain well-visited historic sites to this day. Politically and philosophically, Riel's execution has had a lasting effect on Canadian history. Riel's execution remains a contentious issue, and demands for his retroactive pardon have been made on a number of occasions. Riel has a number of statues commemorating him in his home province. In , Manitoba recognized him with a public holiday held annually in February.

For many, Riel has become a Canadian hero, as he embodies many contemporary issues in the country — bilingualism , multiculturalism , tolerance for difference, a keen sense of social justice — than many of his contemporaries.

Charles VII of France

However, writers often ignore that Riel was very cautious of the Canadian national project, seeing it as assimilatory as much as unifying. The story of Riel has endured dramatic shifts since the s. As a result, he is increasingly praised for his multiculturalism and multilingualism — both of which were contained in the original vision of Manitoba see Manitoba Act. Davidson, Louis Riel ; T. Howard, Strange Empire ; George F.

Par le Dictionnaire biographique du Canada en ligne.