Suppressed

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At the end of the experiment, the participants try to remember all of the word pairs based on the first word. Studies could also use the "independent probe" method, which gives the category and first letter of the second word of the pair. The words are never learned if there is too little activation, and the association between the two words is too strong to be suppressed during the no think phase if there is too much activation.

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However, with medium activation, the word pairs are learned but able to be suppressed during the no think phase. The first is that there is less activity in the hippocampus , the brain area responsible for forming memories. Researchers think that this region works to prevent memory formation by preventing the hippocampus from working.

This methodology can also be used to study thought substitution by adding an instruction during the no think phase for participants to think of a different word rather than the word being suppressed. This research shows that thought substitution can lead to increased levels of forgetting compared to suppression without a thought substitution instruction. Some researchers argue that thinking of something different during the no think phase forms a new association with the first word than the original word pair, which results in interference when using this strategy, which is different than the inhibition that results from simply not thinking about something.

Dreams occur mainly during the rapid eye movement REM sleep and are composed of images , ideas , emotions , and sensations. Although more research needs to be done on this subject, dreams are said to be linked to the unconscious mind. Thought suppression has an influence on the subject matter of the unconscious mind and by trying to restrain particular thoughts, there is a high chance of them showing up in one's dreams. Ironic control theory, also known as " ironic process theory ", states that thought suppression "leads to an increased occurrence of the suppressed content in waking states".

There is a difference for individuals who have a higher tendency of suppression; they are more prone to psychopathological responses such as " intrusive thoughts , including depression , anxiety and obsessional thinking". Cognitive load also plays a role in ironic control theory.

Studies have shown that a greater cognitive load results in an increased possibility of dream rebound occurring.

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In other words, when one tries to retain a heavy load of information before going to sleep, there is a high chance of that information manifesting itself within the dream. With the enhancement of a high cognitive load, ironic control theory states thought suppression is more likely to occur and lead to dream rebound. Dream rebound is when suppressed thoughts manifest themselves in one's dreams. For example, when an individual is attempting to quit smoking, they may dream about themselves smoking a cigarette.

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Recurrence of emotional experiences act as presleep suggestions, ultimately leading to the suppressed thoughts presenting themselves within the dream. Suppressed thoughts are more accessible during REM sleep, as a result of operating processes having a diminished effectiveness. This leads to presleep thoughts becoming more available "with an increased activity of searching for these suppressed thought[s]". For instance, weak semantic associations, post REM sleep, are more accessible than any other time due to weak ironic monitoring processes becoming stronger.

Media related to Thought suppression at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Thought blocking.

Why Suppressing Emotions Doesn't Work With BPD

True and False Recovered Memories. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Springer, New York, NY. White bears and other unwanted thoughts: Suppression, obsession, and the psychology of mental control. London: The Guilford Press. Empirical investigations of thought suppression in OCD. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 35 2 , Handbook of Neuroscience for the Behavioral Sciences. Ironic processes of mental control. Psychological Review, , 34— Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, October Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26; Out of mind but back in sight: Stereotypes on the rebound.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, — Paradoxical effects of thoughts suppression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 5— Effects of suppressing thoughts about emotional material. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, , — An experimental investigation of thought suppression. Depression and mental control: The resurgence of unwanted negative thoughts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, — Paradoxical and less paradoxical effects of thought suppression: a critical review.

Thought suppression and obsession-compulsion. Psychological Reports, 75, — Effects of suppression of personal intrusive thoughts.

Thought suppression

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, — Memories out of order: Thought suppression and the disassembly of remembered experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, — Long term consequences of suppression of intrusive anxious thoughts and repressive coping. Behaviour Research and Therapy 44, Delayed costs of suppressed pain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, — The hyperaccessibility of suppressed thoughts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, — Hypnotic amnesia and the paradox of intentional forgetting.

Experiential avoidance and behavioral disorders: a functional dimensional approach to diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical psychology, 64, Experiential avoidance as a generalized psychological vulnerability: Comparisons with coping and emotion regulation strategies. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Los Angeles: Sage. Experimental Psychology. The effects of suppressing intrusive thoughts on dream content, dream distress and psychological parameters. Journal of Sleep Research, 22 5 , The tendency to suppress, inhibiting thoughts, and dream rebound.

Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45 1 , Dream rebound of suppressed emotional thoughts; The influence of cognitive load.


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    C2 to end something by force :. The Hungarian uprising in was suppressed by the Soviet Union. Causing something to end. C2 to prevent something from being seen or expressed or from operating :. His feelings of resentment have been suppressed for years. The British government tried to suppress the book because of the information it contained about the security services. The virus suppresses the body's immune system. Preventing and impeding. He either has to begin reforms , or he has to suppress the opposition.